Myocardial hemorrhage after myocardial infarction (MI) usually goes undetected. We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of bright-blood T(2)-weighted cardiac MRI for myocardial hemorrhage in experimental MI.
METHODS AND RESULTS
MI was created in swine by occluding the left anterior descending (n=10) or circumflex (n=5) coronary arteries for 90 minutes followed by reperfusion for ≤3 days (n=2), 10 days (n=7), or 60 days (n=6). MRI was performed at 1.5 T, using bright-blood T(2)-prepared steady-state free-precession, T(2)* and early (1 minute) and late (10-15 minutes) gadolinium enhancement (EGE, LGE, respectively) MRI. Left ventricular sections and histology were assessed for hemorrhage by an experienced cardiac pathologist blinded to the MRI data. Hypointense regions on T(2)-weighted and contrast-enhanced MRI were independently determined by 3 cardiologists experienced in MRI who were also blinded to the pathology results. Eighty ventricular pathological sections were matched with MRI (n=68 for EGE MRI). All sections with evidence of MI (n=63, 79%) also exhibited hyperintense zones consistent with edema on T(2)-weighted MRI and infarct on LGE MRI. Myocardial hemorrhage occurred in 49 left ventricular sections (61%) and corresponded with signal voids on 48 T(2)-weighted (98%) and 26 LGE-MRI (53%). Alternatively, signal voids occurred in the absence of hemorrhage in 3 T(2)-weighted (90% specificity) and 5 LGE MRI (84% specificity). On EGE MRI, 27 of 43 cases of early microvascular obstruction corresponded with hemorrhage (63% sensitivity), whereas 5 of 25 defects occurred in the absence of hemorrhage (80% specificity). The positive and negative predictive values for pathological evidence of hemorrhage were 94% and 96% for T(2)-weighted, 84% and 55% for LGE MRI, and 85% and 56% for EGE MRI.
Bright-blood T(2)-weighted MRI has high diagnostic accuracy for myocardial hemorrhage.
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